An attacker manipulates either egress or ingress data from a client within an application framework in order to change the content of messages. Performing this attack can allow the attacker to gain unauthorized privileges within the application, or conduct attacks such as phishing, deceptive strategies to spread malware, or traditional web-application attacks. The techniques require use of specialized software that allow the attacker to perform adversary-in-the-middle (CAPEC-94) communications between the web browser and the remote system. Despite the use of AiTH software, the attack is actually directed at the server, as the client is one node in a series of content brokers that pass information along to the application framework. Additionally, it is not true "Adversary-in-the-Middle" attack at the network layer, but an application-layer attack the root cause of which is the master applications trust in the integrity of code supplied by the client.

Related CWE definitions

The product does not encrypt sensitive or critical information before storage or transmission.
The product does not sufficiently verify the origin or authenticity of data, in a way that causes it to accept invalid data.
The product does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.
The product does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.
The product is composed of a server that relies on the client to implement a mechanism that is intended to protect the server.
Please note that CAPEC definitions are provided as a quick reference only. Visit for a complete list of CAPEC entries and more information.
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