The product receives input or data, but it does
not validate or incorrectly validates that the input has the
properties that are required to process the data safely and
The product receives data from an HTTP agent/component (e.g., web server, proxy, browser, etc.), but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CR and LF characters before the data is included in outgoing HTTP headers.
The authentication scheme or implementation uses key data elements that are assumed to be immutable, but can be controlled or modified by the attacker.
The product does not encrypt sensitive or critical information before storage or transmission.
The product stores sensitive information in cleartext in a cookie.
Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal authenticated sessions.
The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.
The web application uses persistent cookies, but the cookies contain sensitive information.
The product relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid for the associated user.
The product is composed of a server that relies on the client to implement a mechanism that is intended to protect the server.
The product stores security-critical state information about its users, or the product itself, in a location that is accessible to unauthorized actors.