Buffer Overflow attacks target improper or missing bounds checking on buffer operations, typically triggered by input injected by an adversary. As a consequence, an adversary is able to write past the boundaries of allocated buffer regions in memory, causing a program crash or potentially redirection of execution as per the adversaries' choice.

https://capec.mitre.org/data/definitions/100.html

Related CWE definitions

The product performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.
The product copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buffer overflow.
The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index references a valid position within the array.
The product does not correctly calculate the size to be used when allocating a buffer, which could lead to a buffer overflow.
The product performs a calculation to determine how much memory to allocate, but an integer overflow can occur that causes less memory to be allocated than expected, leading to a buffer overflow.
The product uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds of the buffer.
Please note that CAPEC definitions are provided as a quick reference only. Visit http://capec.mitre.org/ for a complete list of CAPEC entries and more information.
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